Why does my stack have an extra 4 bytes? Digging into Clang's return value implementation

I was futzing around with some C code a few days ago and noticed that executables generated by Clang would sometimes have an extra 4 bytes on the stack. This was just for the main function. We can verify this is Compiler Explorer. Try switching to GCC and this doesn’t happen. This was interesting, so I spent a few hours over the holiday digging into why and how this happens.